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Ann Acad Med Singapore

Title:The demography, clinical manifestations and natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in an older population in Singapore
Author(s):Lee, C. C. Leo, Y. S. Snodgrass, I. Wong, S. Y.
Address:Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.
Year:1997 Nov
Journal Title:Ann Acad Med Singapore
Page Number:731-5
ISSN/ISBN:0304-4602 (Print). 0304-4602 (Linking)
Abstract:In this retrospective study, we report 43 cases (41 males and 2 females) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Singapore population aged 50 years and above at first presentation. We found an increasing proportion of these older individuals among our HIV-seropositive patients; from 4.8% in 1991 to 16.7% by mid-1996. The mean age at presentation was 59.2 years (range 50 to 75 years). They were mainly heterosexuals (93%) and the majority (79.1%) were previously or currently married. Thirty-six (83.7%) patients had multiple sexual exposures to commercial sex workers. Nearly all had acquired the infection through the sexual route. The majority (76.7%) were symptomatic at presentation. Common clinical presentations were weight loss (72%), respiratory symptoms (60%) and oral candidiasis (56%). More than half (58.1%) of the patients had acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) at the time of first presentation with a low median CD4 count of 17 cells/mm3. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and tuberculosis were the common AIDS-defining diseases. Survival in patients presenting with AIDS (median survival 3 months) is poorer compared to younger HIV-seropositive patients (< 50 years; median survival 1 year). No increase in age-related infection or malignancy was seen. Common causes of death were pneumonia and septicaemia. Physicians should consider HIV infection in older patients particularly when he/she presents with unexplained weight loss, respiratory symptoms and oral candidiasis. A history of high-risk sexual behaviour must be sought in all patients, including the elderly.

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Citation: El-Sayed AM. The Pherobase: Database of Pheromones and Semiochemicals. <>.
The Pherobase - Extensive Database of Pheromones and Semiochemicals. Ashraf M. El-Sayed.